عنوان مقاله [English]
Shiite movements during the Umayyad and Abbasids had a significant role in political, religious and intellectual evolution of the Islamic world. These movements were the result of the central role of social groups, and the stability and instability of people also had much effect in their success and failure. So the study of these movements and rises from the sociological aspect can highly help analyzing why and how the public associated and did not associat with them.
Zayd ibn Ali’s Movement (698-740 A.D / 79-122 H.D)against Umayyad can be known as a social revolutionary movement which called for the immediate overthrow of the Umayyad regime. Although, this movement was designed based on specific ideology and objectives, after a while it faced with the sudden failure. For the analysis of social and revolutionary movements, sociologists consider patterns and processes. W. E. Getty, Famous sociologist, believes that most social movements consist of four levels. In this paper, with a descriptive-analytical method and enjoying his sociological point of view about social movement, and according to Sunni and Shiite sources, we are about to find an answer for this question: what was the reason of Zayd ibn Ali’s failure?
The results show that because of the quick action of the government to eradicate political crisis in "The phase of excitation" and applied hasty views on the issue of Imamate regardless of the public, Zayd ibn Ali's revolutionary movement did not succeed in attracting supporters (The stage of molding), so and for this reason it failed and did not reach the institutionalization stage.