جایگاه نفت ایران در منافع نفتی آمریکا در خاور میانه 1320-1330

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشجوی دکتری تاریخ ایران دوره‌ی اسلامی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

  اهمیت نفت ایران برای آمریکا بیشتر از منظر کودتای 28 مرداد برای بسیاری شناخته شده است؛ اما با اتمام جنگ جهانی دوم، سیاست خارجی آمریکا بر حمایت از بازسازی کشورهای همسو و متحد و مبارزه با گسترش کمونیسم متمرکز شد. در این میان، به‌دلیل اهمیت نفت برای جهان آزاد و نیاز کشورهای جهان به انرژی برای بازسازی، آمریکا سیاست حفظ ایران در مدار کشورهای آزاد به هر قیمتی را در سیاست خارجی خود قرار داد؛ از این رو سیاستمداران آن کشور با اینکه به‌دنبال منافع مستقیم نفتی در ایران نبودند، در دسترس بودن نفت ایران برای کشورهای آزاد را امری لازم قلمداد می‌کردند و خود بیشتر بر اهمیت ژئوپولتیک جایگاه ایران تأکید می‌کردند. در پژوهش حاضر، با روش تحلیل تاریخی و استناد بر اسناد وزارت خارجه‌ی آمریکا در سال‌های 1320-1330، درصدد هستیم که تصویری شفاف از جایگاه نفت ایران ارائه ‌دهیم که با مطالعه‌ی آن، کودتای 28 مرداد 1332 و دخالت مؤثر آمریکا را درک کنیم. سیاست آمریکا در این دوره، بر کسب منافع غیرمستقیم از صنعت نفت ایران استوار بود که با روی کار آمدن دکتر مصدق و ملی شدن صنعت نفت، به کسب منافع مستقیم گرایش یافت.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Iran in Fulfilling the US Oil Profits in the Middle East during 1950-1960

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Akbari 1
  • Michael Vahidi Rad 2
1 Associated Professor, Department of History, Shahid Behshti University
2 Ph.D. Candidate in History of Islamic Iran, Shahid Behshti University
چکیده [English]

The Mordad 28, 1332 coup (August 19, 1953) is the main event which reminds us of the US desire for Iranian oil. After the end of the World War II, the US concentrated on reconstructing its allied countries and preventing the dissemination of communism. In this regard and due to the crucial importance of oil for the free world and the need of oil for reconstruction, the US used its entire means to keep Iran in the free world camp, as a priority of its foreign policy. Although, western politicians were not seeking direct access to Iranian oil resources, they emphasized over the free world’s accessibility to Iranian oil, and mostly the geopolitical status of Iran in the Middle East. Based on the documents of 1950-1960, disseminated by the US Department of State, and applying a descriptive-historical method; this article aims at depicting a clear image of the role of Iranian oil resources in the Mordad 28, 1332 coup (August 19, 1953) in Iran and the US’ influential role in this event. In fact, the main US policy during this era was initially based on gaining indirect profits from Iranian oil resources. But after the admittance of Mosaddeq, the Iranian prime minister, and the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry; the US changed its policy into gaining direct profits.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oil
  • World War II
  • communism
  • England
  • nationalization of oil
  • the US
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