عنوان مقاله [English]
Shi'a Marja'iat in Iran carries a great potencies and capabilities in socio-political changes of Iran. In contemporary history of Iran, the performance of Marjai’iat varies. Sometimes it has been an activist approach with the Ulama as acting agent. This may historically recall the influential presence of Ulama in Constitutional Revolution of Iran in 1303/1924. However, this performance has sometimes been in the form of reaction to some external changes. At this time they may be considered as reacting agent to stand against a significant issue like the rise of Ulama against imposed modernization at Reza Shah reign. Finally, this performance has been sometimes formulated in passive attitude, neutrality and renunciation. The illustration of this kind would be the neutrality and conservatism of General Marja'iat of Time, Ayatollah Broujerdi, against conflict between the national nront and Royal forces in coalition with Britain during Dr. Mosaddegh state. Accordingly, as a social agent, Marjaiiat, has had both active-effective and passive-influenced characteristics like other social groups in society. Significantly, studying Marjaiiat in Iran should not be restricted to Howze Elmieh (seminary) as it rather to be considered in a wider socio-political context.
Assuming the latter point, this paper attempts to study the historical evolution of Marja'iat and its interaction with society and state during General Marja'iat of Ayatollah Broujerdi. Relying on oral data, collected from interviewing close companions and students of Ayatollah Broujerdi as well as using related historical sources, this paper studies Ulama interaction with society and state. The paper has been organized on four topics: Socio-political backgrounds, The situation of Hawze Elmie (Seminary), Marja'iat and society and finally Marja'iat and the political order.
 . The highest position in priests and religious officials hierarchy in Shi'a religion.