عنوان مقاله [English]
Medians have an important role in Iranian culture and civilization, but there are many ambiguous points in political history, historical geography and archeology of this period. Medians Territory, states, governmental centers, and economic and social structure are not considered and presented with a scientific method. In this study, by using the Assyrian sources, a new reconstruction of the historical geography of the Medians before establishment and expansion of the kingdom (835-672 BC) is provided. Based on the results, the realm of Median tribes in west was limited to Kermanshah and north of Lorestan, from northwest to Mianeh and Bijar, from southwest to Pars, from south and southeast to desert regions, from north to the Alborz mountain range and from East to Semnan region. In this vast territory, there were independent large and small political and geographical units, without forming any unified political structure. During this period Sagbat (9th-8th century BC) and Kar-Kaši (7th century BC) were important governance centers that are likely to be the same as Hegmataneh in the next era. The main manner of life of the Median tribes were husbandry and horse breeding and after that, agricultural and trade.