حضور هخامنشیان در ایونیه: از پایان جنگ پلوپونزی تا صلح آنتالکیداس (404-387 پ.م)

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری تاریخ و فرهنگ و ادیان پسین باستان، مؤسسۀ پژوهش‌های عالی سوربن، پاریس (EPHE)

چکیده

برخلاف نبردهای پارسیان و یونانیان در دورۀ داریوش و خشایارشا، گزارش نبردها در دوره‌های سپسین (اردشیر یکم، داریوش دوم، اردشیر دوم) با روایاتی آشفته، فرعی و پراکنده در منابع یونانی به یادگار مانده‌اند. پس از برقراری صلح موسوم به «کالیاس» در سال 449 پ.م. میان پارس و آتن، تاریخ‌نگاری آتنی توجه خود را از هخامنشیان برگرداند و معطوف به رقیب یونانی‌اش اسپارت کرد. به این ترتیب، تا شصت سال بعد، یعنی تا زمان صلح موسوم به «آنتالکیداس» (صلح شاه) با یک بی‌توجهی عمدی نسبت به حضور پیگیرانۀ هخامنشیان در جبهه‌های غربی و دخالت‌های آن دولت در امور جهان یونانی مواجه‌ایم. منابعِ متأخر تاریخی نیز رخدادهای این دوره را از دریچۀ چشم تبلیغاتی سدۀ چهارم پیش از میلاد آتن که مقتضیات و محدودیت‌های خاص خود را ‌داشت، نگریسته­اند و پژوهش‌های جدید نیز اگرچه تلاش درخوری در نور افشاندن به نکات تاریک و مبهم این دوره داشته‌اند، تقریباً همه از زاویه‌ای یونان‌شناسانه و اکثراً یونان‌محورانه به کشاکش پارس و قدرت‌های یونانی نگاه کرده‌اند. پرسش اصلی این پژوهش دربارۀ تداوم نفوذ دولت هخامنشیان در ایونیه و غرب آسیای صغیر در دورۀ پس از جنگ پلوپونزی تا صلح 387 پ.م است. بر پایۀ این پژوهش، به نظر می‌رسد برخلاف آنچه که بسیار گفته شده است، این پیروزی‌ها صرفاً با طلا و رشوه و تنها با تحمیل صلح شاه به‌دست نیامده بود و هخامنشیان با ترکیبی از جنگ و دیپلماسی در طول دهه‌ها به این موفقیت نائل شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Achaemenid Presence in Ionia: From the End of the Peloponnesian War to the Peace of Antalcidas (404-387 BCE)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kolsoum Ghazanfari 1
  • Bahram Roshan Zamir 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of History, Faculty of Literature, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Student, Monotheism Laboratory, Department of Religions, Sorbonne Higher Research Institute, Paris
چکیده [English]

Unlike the war between the Achaemenids and the Greeks during the reign of Darius and Xerxes, the accounts on the war of the later periods (Artaxerxes I, Darius II, Artaxerxes II) is remembered with scattered secondary narratives in Greek sources. After the so-called Callias Peace in 449 BCE between Persia and Athens, Athenian historians turned their attention away from the Persians and turned to their home rival Sparta. Thus, in the next 60 years, until the so-called Antalcidas' Peace (or King's Peace), one confronts a deliberate disregard for the Persian presence on the Western fronts and its interference in Greek affairs. Recent historical sources have also looked at the events of this period through the Athenian eyes of the 4th Century BC, which had its own necessities and limitations. Modern scholarship, although diligent in shedding light on the dark and obscure points of this period, almost remained Hellenocentrist. In this study, the influence of the Persian state in Ionia and western Asia Minor after the Peloponnesian War and the intervention of the Great King in Greek affairs are reassessed. We also reconsider the military and diplomatic victory of Persia over Athens and Sparta and what is called Persian victory through the gold and bribes in the early fourth century.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Greco-Persian Wars
  • Artaxerxes II
  • Tissaphernes
  • Agesilaus
  • Peloponnesian War
منابع و مآخذ
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-
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List of sources with English handwriting      
Persian Sources
-         Ḡażanfarī, Kolṯūm; Bahrām Rošānżamīr (1399 Š.), “Haḵāmanešīān dar Īyonīya: Az Nabard-e Mūkāleh tā Ṣolḥ-e Kālīās (479-449 BC.)”, Peĵūhišhā-ye ‘Olūm-e Tārīḵī, No. 2, pp. 65-88.[In Persian]
-         Šahbāzī, ‘Alīreżā Šāpūr (1350 Š.), Yek Šāhzāda-ye Haḵāmanešī, Shiraz: Dānišgāh-e Pahlavī.[In Persian]
 
English and French Sources
-         Andocides (1968), Minor Attic Orators in two volumes 1, Antiphon Andocides, translated by K. J. Maidment, Harvard University Press, William Heinemann.
-         Andrewes, A. (1961), “Thucydides and the Persians”, Historia, No. 10, pp. 1-18.
-         Atack, Carol (2018), The Greek Superpower: Sparta in the Self-Definitions of Athenians, ed. Paul Cartledge, Anton Powell, Swansea: The Classical Press of Wales.
-         Badi, Amir Mehdi (1966), Les Grecs et les Barbares L’autre face de l’histoire, Payot Lausanne. 
-         Bengston, Hermann (1968), The Greeks and the Persians: From the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries, Delacorte Press.
-         Bruce, I. A. F. (1966), “Athenian Embassies in the Early Fourth Century B.C.”, Historia, Bd. 15, pp.272-281.
-         Cawkwell, George. L. (1976), “Agesilaus and Sparta”, the Classical Quarterly, Vol. 26, No.1, pp. 62-84.
-         Cawkwell, George. L. (2010), “Between Athens, Sparta, and Persia: the Historical Significance of the Liberation of Thebes in 379”, On the daimonion of Socrates, ed. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
-         Cawkwell, George. L. (1997), “The Peace between Athens and Persia”, Phoenix, Vol. 51, No.2, pp. 115-130.
-         Demosthenes, (1926), Demosthenes, tr. C. A. Vince, et al., London: Harvard University Press, William Heinemann.
-         Devoto, James G. (1986), “Agesilaus, Antalcidas, and the Failed Peace of 392/91 B.C.”, Classical Philology, Vol. 81, No. 3, pp. 191-202.
-         Diodorus the Sicilian, (1814), Historical Library in Fifteen Books, translated by G. Booth,
London: W. McDowall.
-         Dušanić, Slobodan, (2000), “The Attic-Chian Alliance ("IG" II² 34) and the 'Troubles in Greece' of the Late 380's BC”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bd. 133, pp. 21-30.
-         Fine, John V. A. (1983), The Ancient Greeks: A critical history, Harvard University Press.
-         Gastaldi, Enrica Culasso (1988), Le prossenie ateniesi, Alessandria: Edizioni dell’Orso.
-         Grote, George (1907), A History of Greece: From the Earliest Period to the Close of the Generation Contemporary with Alexander the Great, Vol.7, London: John Murray.
-         Ghirshman, Roman (1951), L’Iran des Origines a l’Islam, Paris: Payot.
-         Hamilton, Charles. D. (1980), “Isocrates, IG ii 2 43, Greek Propaganda and Imperialism”, Traditio, Vol. 36, pp. 83-109.
-         Hellenica Oxyrhynchia (Aris and Phillips Classical Texts), (1988), ed. & translated by P. R. McKechnie, S. J. Kern, et al., Liverpool University Press.
-         Hignett, Charles (1963), Xerxes Invasion of Greece, Clarendon Press.
-         Hyland, John (2018), Persian Interventions: The Achaemenid Empire, Athens, and Sparta, 450−386 BCE, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
-         Isocrates (1980), Isocrates, translated by George Norlin, London: William Heinemann.
-         Junianus, Marcus (1853), Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, translated by  John Selby Watson, London: Henry G. Bohn.
-         Kagan, Donald (1991), The Fall of the Athenian Empire, Cornell University Press.
-         Kagan, Donald (2004), The Peloponnesian War, Penguin Books.
-         Karwiese, Stefan (1980), “Lysander as Herakliskos Drakonopnigon: ('Heracles the snake-strangler')”, The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-), Seventh Series, Vol. 20 (140), pp.1-27.
-         Lahcen, Mounir (2011), The Common Foe: Perception of Persia in and Macedon in Demosthenes' public speeches, Utrecht: Utrecht University Library.
-         Lysias, (1930), Lysias, translated by W. R. M. Lamb, Harvard University Press.
-         Mattingly, Harold B. (1988), “Methodology in Fifth-Century Greek History”, Échos du Monde Classique: Classical views, vol. XXXII, No. 3, pp. 321-328.
-         Mattingly, Harold B. (1965), “The Peace of Kallias”, Historia, No. 14, pp. 273-281.
-         Meiggs, Russell, (1972), Athenian Empire, Oxford.
-         Mosley, D. J., (1973), “Conon's Embassy to Persia,” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, No. 116, pp. 17–21.
-         Parke, H. W. (1930), “The Development of the Second Spartan Empire (405-371 B. C.)”, Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 50, Part 1, pp. 37-79.
-         Pascual (2009), “Xenophon and the Chronology of the War on Land from 393 to 386 B.C.”, The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 59, No.1, pp.75-90.
-         Plutarch (1917), Plutarch's Lives, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, London: Heinemann.
-         Raubitschek, Antony E. (1964), “Treaties between Persia and Athens”, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, No. 5, pp.157-158.
-         Rhodes. P. J. (2016), “Heraclides of Clazomenae and an Athenian Treaty with Persia”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bd. 200, pp.177-186.
-         Rice, David G. (1974), “Agesipolis, and Spartan Politics, 386-379 B.C.”, Historia, Bd. 23, pp. 164-182.
-         Roberts, Jennifer Tolbert (1980), “The Athenian Conservatives and the Impeachment Trials of the Corinthian War”, Hermes, Vol. 108, pp.100-114.
-         Roos, A.G. (1949), “The Peace of Sparta of 374 B.C.”, Mnemosyne, Vol. 2, Fasc.4, pp. 265-285.
-         Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Heleen (1987), “The Fifth Oriental Monarchy and Hellenocentrism”, Achaemenid History, vol. II, ed. Sancisi-Weerdenburg and A. Kuhrt, Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten.
-         Schachter, Albert (2016), Boiotia in Antiquity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-         Schmitt, Rüdiger (1991), “Čiorafarna”, Encyclopedia Iranica, Vol. V, Fasc.6, pp.636-637.
-         Seager, Robin (1967), “Thrasybulus, Conon and Athenian Imperialism, 396-386 B. C.”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 87, pp.95-115.
-         Seager, Robin & Christopher Tuplin (1980), “The Freedom of the Greeks of Asia: on the Origins of a Concept and the Creation of a Slogan”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Centennary Issue, Vol. 100, pp.141-154.
-         Sealey, R. (1954-1955), “The Peace of Callias once more”, Historia, No. 3, pp.325-330.
-         Shrimpton, Gordon (1991), “Persian Strategy against Egypt and the Date for the Battle of Citium”, Phoenix, Vol. 45, No.1, pp.1-20.
-         Smith, R. E. (1954), “The Opposition to Agesilaus' Foreign Policy 394-371 B.C.”, Historia, Bd.2, H. 3, pp.274-288.
-         Stockton, David, (1959), “The Peace of Callias”, Historia, Bd. 8, pp. 61– 79.
-         Swoboda, Heinrich (1922), “Konon (3)”, Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, No. 11, pp.1319–1334.
-         Thompson, W. E. (1971), “The Athenian treaties Haliai and Dareios the Bastard”, Klio, No. 53, pp.119-124.
-         Thucydides (1972), History of the Peloponnesian War, translated and edited Rex Warner & M. I. Finley, London: Penguin Books.
-         Wade-Gery, Henry Theodore (1958), Essays in Greek History, Oxford: Blackwell.
-         Wilson, C. H. (Apr 1966), “Thucydides, Isocrates, and the Athenian Empire”, Greece & Rome, Vol.13, No.1, pp. 54-63.
-         Xenophon (1918), Xenophon in Seven Volumes, translated by Carleton L. Brownson & et al., vols. IV-V, London: W. Heinemann; New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.