مشروعیت آسمانی در آثار نوشتاری عیلام

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

در دولت‌های نخستین، مهم‌ترین جنبة مشروعیت شاهان، تقدس نهاد شاهی بود که از شاه یک میانجی میان آسمان و زمین می‌ساخت. این تقدس عموماً به دو گونه کسب می‌شد: در گونة نخست، شاهان تجلی خدایان یا از تبار ایشان تلقی می‌شدند و یا به‌عنوان یکی از خدایان پرستیده می‌شدند(شاهی آسمانی). در گونة دوم شاهان هرچند مدعی اشکال پیشین الوهیت نبودند اما خود را برگزیدة خدایان و نمایندة آنان بر روی زمین قلمداد می‌کردند. (شاهی مقدس). چنین به نظر می‌رسد که در آغاز تشکیل دولت در عیلام در میانة هزارة سوم پیش از میلاد، نوعی از شاهی مقدس در آن سرزمین رواج داشته است که نمونة مشابه آن در فرهنگ معاصر میان‌رودانی آن نیز دیده می‌شود. در دوران کهن تاریخ عیلام (اواخر هزاره سوم) تحت تأثیر ایدئولوژی سلطنتی میان‌رودانی که با سلطة دودمان اَکَد در عیلام رواج یافته بود، برخی شاهان عیلامی تلاش نمودند تا به شیوة دودمان اَکَد خود را مجری اوامر خدایان و برگزیدة آنان قلمداد کنند. در دوره دودمان سیماشکی نیز شواهدی از تأثیر ایدئولوژی سلطنتی معاصر میان‌رودانی دیده می‌شود چنان‌که بعضی فرمانروایان این دودمان تلاش کردند تا به شیوة شاهان دودمان میان‌رودانی اور سوم کیش پرستش شاه را برقرار نمایند؛ امری که عیلام نیز همچون میان‌رودان نتیجه‌بخش نبود. سرانجام القاب شاه در نبشته‌های عیلامی میانه و نو عیلامی که در آن‌ها از فرمانروایان با لقب خدمتگزار و محبوب خدایان یاد شده است نشان می‌دهند که شاهی مقدس در عیلام رواج داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Royal Legitimacy in the Elamite Inscriptions

نویسنده [English]

  • Ehsan Afkande
چکیده [English]

In the early states, most important aspect of royal legitimacy was the sanctity of kingship which made of king, a mediator between Heaven and the Earth. Such sanctity had been acquired in two ways: In the first type, kings were considered manifestation of the gods or their descendants or even in some cases were worshiped as one of them (divine kingship). In the second type, even though they did not claim divine status, but considered themselves chosen by gods and their representatives on the Earth (sacral kingship). It seems that in the early state formation in Elam in the middle of third millennium B.C., a type of sacral kingship has been practiced which is similar to its contemporary culture in the Mesopotamia. In the Elamite old period (late third millennium), under the influence of Mesopotamian royal ideology that has been spread by the dominance of Akkadian dynasty, some of Elamite kings tried to show themselves as enforcer of divine laws and chosen by gods in the manner of Akkadian kings. By the time of Simaški kings, again, there is evidence for the influence of Mesopotamian culture on the Elamite royal ideology as some of their rulers tried to establish a royal cult similar to their contemporary Mesopotamian equals, Ur III dynasty, which was not successful in both Elam and Mesopotamia. Eventually, it seems that royal titulary in middle and neo-Elamite inscriptions illustrates practice of sacral kingship in Elam.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Elam
  • Royal Ideology
  • Divine Kingship
  • Sacral Kingship
 

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