عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Median kingdom despite historically low time, was origin of the important political, social and cultural developments. Unfortunately, there are fundamental ambiguities associated with various aspects of this kingdom. So that number of researchers deny the existence of a great kingdom of median. and others due to lack of sufficient evidence, called this period " Median dark age". The lack of sufficient archaeological and historical evidence of the Median kingdom and major centers, have provided such interpretations. However, indirect evidence and different sources provide historical context that by analyzing them can reconstitutes the various aspects of Median kingdom. This paper attempts to reconstruct the historical geography of the Median after establishing kingdom and its expansion and attempted to rely on various historical sources and archaeological data, provide documented reconstruction. According to studies conducted, Median western and northwestern territory includes: northeast of Mesopotamia, southeast of Asia Minor and Armenia. Its eastern territory had been extended to parts of current Turkmenistan. Alborz mountain range forms the northern border of the Median kingdom and with the domination of Median in Pars, their political boundaries were drawn to Persian Gulf. In the whole this reconstruction conforms to the image provided by Greek sources of the Median Kingdom formation and western expansion.