عنوان مقاله [English]
Religious conflicts between Shiites and Sunnis in Iraq, dates back to centuries before the nineteenth century. During the period of Ottoman rule over Iraq and the rise to power of the Safavid dynasty in the eastern borders of this empire, disagreements entered a new phase, in addition to religious character, took on a political nature. In the nineteenth century, after the upgrade diplomatic relations on states, as well as their commitment to respect the rights of minorities, Shiites in Ottoman Iraq have more freedom in their activities. However, The competing Sunni and Shiite religious disagreements among the people remained, and at times led to military intervention by Governments to resolve the political crisis. Geopolitical and cultural-demographic characteristics of this part of the Ottoman Empire with common historical, religious and cultural unity of the country with Iran, Sunni Shia relations became more complicated more added to its political nature. Therefore, to better understand the nature and dimensions of religious conflicts in Iraq in the nineteenth century, in addition to religious and ideological aspects, the political context of this conflict are also considered. In this paper, the Shia-Sunni conflicts in the Atabat-i Aliyat in the nineteenth century and its impact on political relations between Iran and the Ottoman Empire are studied.