عنوان مقاله [English]
The revolt of rāfi‘ ibn layth is one of the most important revolts against Abbasids in khorassan. This revolt happening at the end of Hārūn-al-Rashīd’s caliphate, in 190 A.H., was the last revolt that challenged Abbasid caliphate in 2nd century. Leader of this revolt gathered numerous local Arabs and Iranians using their discontent from Ibn- māhān’s oppressively conduct, massacre of Barmakides, and inattention to their desires. This movement spread among the inhabitants of Transoxiana and embraced the whole area , from Chāch and Farghana to Soghd and Balkh, by joining of people and groups with particular economical and social motivations. Actually, Rāfi‘ made an effort on extinction of Abbasid caliphate through invite toward Umayyads, and failed endeavors of Abbasid commanders on his repression. As much as that Hārunwas inforced to march to Khorasan in spite of his illness, , he opposed Rāfi‘ by appointment of Ma’mūn as governor of Khorasan. Rāfi‘ was defeated and inforced to surrender by presence of Ma’mūn in Khorassan, and his conduct to attraction of hearts of people.
By the historical analytic method and by asking about the little existing data ,this article seeks to make much clear, if possible, scrutinized the major causes of the revolt in Transoxiana, backgrounds leading to Its process of upheavals as well as the Its intellectual, religious and social basis, the reasons of this revolt, and finally the factors contributing to its deficiencies and outcomes of it .