نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار بنیاد دائرة‌المعارف اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با رونق‌گرفتن جادۀ ابریشم، از سدۀ نخست میلادی، سغدی‌ها که سرزمینشان در آسیای‌ میانه بر سر راه این جادۀ تجاری قرار داشت، به تجارت رو آوردند و قومی سوداگر شدند که برای تجارت به سرزمین‌های دیگر سفر می‌کردند. سغدیها که پیش از آن دین مزدیسنا را پذیرفته بودند، از طریق تجارت با مردمان دیگر، با دین‌ها و عقاید گوناگونی چون دین مانی، بودا، مزدک و مسیحیت نسطوری آشنا شدند. برخی از سغدی‌ها به آن دین‌ها گرویدند و مبلغ آن دین‌ها شدند. از دیگر سو، جدا از اینکه سغدی‌ها در سرزمین‌شان با دین‌های گوناگونی برخورد داشتند و کوشش می‌کردند که اصول عقاید آنها را دریابند، مصالح تجاری و سیاسی‌شان سبب شد تا در قلمرو آنها این دین‌ها آزادانه در کنار یکدیگر و بدون هیچ مناقشۀ مذهبی تبلیغ و ترویج شوند، پدیده‌ای که می‌توان از آن با عنوان «رواداری سوداگرانه» یاد کرد. در این مقاله با بهره‌گیری از منابع باستانی، پژوهش‌های نوین و همچنین کاوش‌های باستان‌شناسی وجوه گوناگون این رواداری سوداگرانه بررسی شد. این پدیده در هیچ دورۀ تاریخی و جغرافیایی دیگری تا دوران معاصر که ملت‌های گوناگون با دین‌های متفاوت در کنار یکدیگر زیسته‌اند، دیده نشده ‌است و به نتایج بدیعی چون «ایجاد یگانگی میان دین‌ها» در سغد در میانۀ سده‌های ششم تا هشتم میلادی انجامید، بر اساس این تفکر سغدی‌ها کوشیدند تا میان دین‌های گوناگونی که در قلمرو خود یا مهاجرنشین‌هایشان رواج داشت، سازگاری ایجاد کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Commercial Tolerance; The Analysis of the Effect of the Sogdians’ Morale in trade on the Propagation of Various Religions in Transoxiana and China

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Alibabaee Dermeni

Assistant Professor of Islamic Encyclopedia Foundation, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

With the burgeoning of the Silk Road from the first century AD, the Sogdians whose land, in Transoxiana, was located along this trade road, became traders, and traveled to other lands for business. Through trading with other peoples, Sogdians who had previously embraced Zoroastrianism became acquainted with various religions and beliefs, such as Manichaeism, Buddhism, Mazdakism, and Nestorian Christianity, and Some of them converted to those religions and started to propagate them. On the other side, not only did Sogdians were encountering various religions in their homeland and tried to understand the principles of their religions, but also their commercial and political preferences brought about the advertisement and promotion of those other religions freely and without any conflict in their territory. This phenomenon can be called "Commercial Tolerance".
In this article, the various aspects of this commercial tolerance were analyzed by using some ancient sources, new studies, and archeological excavations. This phenomenon has never been seen in any other historical periods or any other lands unless in the contemporary era, where different nations with different religions have lived together. This phenomenon has brought about new consequences such as “the creation of unity between religions" in Sogdiana between the sixth and eighth centuries A.D. Based on this thought, the Sogdians tried to build compatibility between the various religions that were prevalent in their territory or between their colonies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Buddhism
  • Manichaeism
  • Sogdiana
  • Transoxiana
  • Zoroastrianism
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References in English, French, German and Chinese
-Arrian(1967) , Anabasis Alexandri, Translated by E. Iliff Robson, Massachusetts: Harvard university press.
-Back Michael (1978), Die Sassanidischen Staatsinschriften (Acta Iranica 18), Leiden: Brill.
-Bartholomae Christian (1904), Alteiranisches Wörterbuch, ,Strassburg: K. J. Trübner, 1904.
-Baumer, Christoph (2008), traces in the desert, Translated by Colin Boone, London: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd.
-Chavannes, Édouard (1903), documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux, St.Peterburg: l'Académie Impériale des Sciences.
-Christensen, Arthur (1936),  L'Iran sous les Sassanides, Copenhague: Levin and Munksgaard.
-De La Vaissière , Ètienne (2019), “the Faith of Wirkak the Dēnāwar, or Manichaeism as Seen from a Zoroastrian Point of View” in Bulletin of the Asia Institute, new series/volume 29, New York: Monimos Foundation.
-De La Vaissière , Ètienne (2005), Sogdian Traders, Translated by James Ward, Leiden: Brill.
-Foltz, Richard (2013), “The Role of the Sogdians in the Spread of World Religions” in V. Naddaf, F. Goshtasb, M. Shokri-Foumeshi (ed), Ranj o Ganj, Papers in Honour of Z. Zarshenas ( 24-31), Tehran: Institute for Humanities & Cultural Studies.
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-Grenet, Frantz (2002), "Zoroastrian themes on early medieval Sogdian Ossuaries" in A Zoroastrian tapestry : art, religion & culture, Usmanpura, India : Mapin Pub.
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Xue Li, (1994), Zhongguo sichou zhilu cidian (in Chinese), Urumqi: Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe.