سرعت سفر زمینی در روزگار شاهنشاهی اشکانی (از سده اول قبل از میلاد تا سده سوم میلادی)

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تاریخ ایران باستان دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه تاریخ، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در اسناد تاریخی و روایات مورخان کلاسیک، درباره حرکت چاپارها، سپاهیان و کاروان‌ها در روزگار اشکانیان گزارش‌هایی دیده می‌شود که در آن ها زمان شروع حرکت یا پایان یا هر دو بیان شده یا این زمان قابل محاسبه است. از طرفی، برخی گزارش‌ها مانند سفرنامه‌ها و اسناد مشابه، مسافت میان نقاط مختلف شاهنشاهی اشکانی را در اختیار خواننده قرار داده‌ است. این دو گونه اطلاعات -یعنی مدت‌زمان سفر و میزان مسافت- داده‌های لازم برای محاسبه سرعت حرکت چاپارها، سپاهیان و کاروان‌ها را در دسترس قرار می‌دهد. گردآوری این اطلاعات پراکنده و محاسبه سرعت سفر، در راستای پاسخ به این پرسش است که میزان سرعت سفر زمینی در روزگار شاهنشاهی اشکانی از سده اول قبل از میلاد تا سده سوم میلادی چقدر بوده است. در این میان، نادقیق بودن برخی داده‌ها و همچنین دشوار یا ناامن بودن بعضی راه‌ها، جای خطایی برای محاسبات جاری گذاشته است تا محاسبات در نهایت به صورت دامنه‌ای ارائه شود. با روش بررسی موردی و تطبیق محاسبات با سرعت‌هایی که پیش از آن ضبط شده، می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که دامنه سرعت حرکت چاپارها میان ۸۰ تا ۲۷۷ کیلومتر در شبانه‌روز، دامنه سرعت لشکرکشی‌ها بین ۱۰ تا ۴۰ کیلومتر در شبانه‌روز و بازه سرعت برای کاروان‌های تجاری ۴۰ تا ۶۰ کیلومتر در شبانه‌روز و برای هیئت‌های سیاسی ۱۰ تا ۱۵ کیلومتر در شبانه‌روز بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Overland Travel Speed in the Arsacid Empire Era (From 1st Century BCE to 3rd Century CE)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Ordou 1
  • Roozbeh Zarrinkoob 2
1 PhD Candidate in Ancient Iran History, Department of History, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of History, Faculty of Literature and Humanistic Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

There are reports considering armies, riders, and caravans’ movements in historical evidence and classical narratives, including departure and arrival times, or calculable. Also, there are accounts such as itineraries and similar evidence measuring distances between most parts of the Arsacid Empire. These two kinds of information, namely travel time and distance, provide necessary data for calculating riders, armies, and caravans’ travel speed. Gathering this sporadic information and calculating travel speed in the Arsacid empire era is the goal of this research to answer the following question: what was the overland travel speed in the Arsacid empire period, from 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE? In the meantime, inaccuracies of the data available and the existence of impassable or unsecured routes forbade us from achieving an exact conclusion about the travel speed, so an approximate range has been calculated. According to these calculations, the range of couriers’ travel speed was between 80 to 277 km/day, the range of campaigns travel speed was between 10 to 40 km/day, and the range of motion for trade caravans was between 40 to 60 km/day and for political delegations was 10 to 15 km/day.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Travel Speed
  • Arsacids
  • Overland travel
  • Couriers
  • Campaigns
  • Caravans
References
 
1- Ammianus Marcellinus, 2000, The Roman History, translated by John C. Rolfe, Harvard University Press.
2- Astour, M. C. (1995), “Overland Trade Routes in Ancient Western Asia,” in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, ed. J. M. Sasson et al, NewYork: Scribner, pp.1401-1420.
3- Benjamin, C. (2018), “The Parthian Empire and the Silk Roads”, In Empires of Ancient Eurasia: The First Silk Roads Era, 100 BC – 250 CE, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 148-175.
4- Birley, A. R. (1999), Septimus Severus: The African Emperor, London: Routledge.
5- Bivar, A. D. H. (2007), “Gondophares and the Indo-Parthians”, in The Age of the Parthians, edited by Sarah Stewart & Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, London: I. B. Tauris, pp.26-36.
6- Boeft, Jan den, J. W. Drijvers, D. den Hengst & H. C. Teitler (2015), Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXX, Brill.
7- Boulnois, L. (2004), Silk Road: Monks, Warriors & Merchants on the Silk Road, Hong Kong: Odyssey Books.
8- Briant, P. (1984), L’Asie centrale et les royaumes proche-orientaux du premier millenaire, (c. VIIIe-IVe siecles av. N. ere), Paris.
9- Briant, P. (2002), From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns.
10- Brunner, C. (1983), “Geographical and Administrative Divisions: Settlements and Economy”, The Cambridge History of Iran 3.2, pp. 747-777.
11- Chaumont, M. L. (1984), “Études d’histoire parthe V: La route des Parthes de Zeugma à Séleucie du Tigre d’après l’Itinéraire d’Isidore de Charax”, Syria, pp.61, 63-107.
12- Chaumont, M. L. (1987), “Un document méconnu concernant l’envoi d’un ambassadeur parthe vers Septime Sévère (P. Dura 60 B.)”, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Bd. 36, H. 4, pp.422-447.
13- Choisnel, E. (2004), Les Parthes et la route de la soie, Paris.
14- Cicero (1919), Letters to Atticus, translated by E. O. Winstedt, Vol.1, London: William Heinemann.
15- ……. (1952), Letters to His Friends, translated by W. Glynn Williams, Vol.2, London: William Heinemann LTD.
16- ……. (1958), The Letters to His Friends, translated by W. Glynn Williams, Vol.1, London: William Heinemann LTD.
17- ………. (1960), The Letters to His Friends, translated by W. Glynn Williams, Vol.3, London: William Heinemann LTD.
18- Colburn, G., 2013, “Connectivity and Communication in the Achaemenid Empire”, JESHO 56, 29-52.
19- Colledge, M. A. R. (1967), The Parthians, Praeger.
20- Coloru, Omar & Giusto Traina & Alexis Lycas (2016), “The Parthians,” In Turkemistan. Histories of a Country, Cities and a Desert, edited by M. Bernardini, G. Bonora, G. Traina, Umberto Allemandi, Torino, pp. 49-58.
21- Debevoise, N. (1938), A Political History of Parthia, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
22- De Romanis, F. (2020), The Indo-Roman Pepper Trade and the Muziris Papyrus, Oxford: Oxford Univrsity Press.
23- Diakonov, M. M. (1965/1344), Les Parthes [Persian Text], translated by K. Keshavarz, Tehran, Payam.
24- Dillemann, L. (1962), Haute Mésopotamie orientale et pays adjacents, Paris.
25- Dio Cassius (1914a), Dio’s Roman History, translated by Earnest Cary, vol.III, London: William Heinemann.
26- Dio Cassius (1914b), Dio’s Roman History, VIII, translated by Earnest Cary, London, William Heinemann.
27- Dio Cassius, 1955, Dio’s Roman History, Vol. IX, translated by Earnest Car, London, William Heinemann.
28- Eliot, C. W. J. (1955), “New Evidence for the Speed of the Roman Imperial Post”, Phoenix, Vol.9, No.2, pp.76-80.
29- Ellerbrock, U. & S. Winkelmann, (2012), Die Parther. Die vergessen Grossmacht, Darmstadt.
30- Engels, D. (1985), “The Length of Eratosthenes’ Stade”, The American Journal of Philology 106, pp.298-311.
31- Fabian, L. (2017), “Numismatic communities in the northern South Caucasus 300 BCE-300CE: A geospatial analysis of coin finds from Caucasian Iberia and Caucasian Albania”, in Sinews of Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Hakon Fiane Teigen and Eivind Heldaas Seland (eds), Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp.37-70.
32- Florus (2018), Complete Works of Florus, translated by E. S. Forster, Delphi Classics.
33- Frye, R. N. (1992), “Commerce iii. In the Parthian and Sasanian Periods”, Encyclopedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 1, pp.61-64.
34- Gatier, P. L. & T. Sinclair (2000), “Map 67 Antiochia”, in Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map-by-map Directory, edited by R. J. A. Talbert, Vol.1, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp.1029-1041.
35- Gawlikowski, M. (1988), “La route de l’Euphrate d’Isidore à Julien,” in Géographie historique au Proche-Orient (Syrie, Phénicie, Arabie, grecques, romaines, byzantines), P. L. Gatier & B. Helly & J. P. Rey-Coquais (Hrsg), Paris: pp.77-98.
36- Ghirshman, R. (1954), Iran From the Earliest Times to The Islamic Conquest, Penguin Books.
37- Gibbon, E. (2015), Delphi Complete Works of Edward Gibbon, Volume 15 of Series Five, Delphi Classics.
38- Gnoli, T. (2000), Roma, Edessa e Palmira nel III sec. d. C. Problemi istituzionali. Uno studio sui papyri dell’Eufrate, Pisa Roma.
39- Gradoni, M. K. (2013), “The Parthian Campaigns of Septimius Severus: Causes, and Roles in Dynastic Legitimation”, in The Roman Empire During the Severan Dynasty: Case Studies in History, Art, Architecture, Economy and Literature, edited by Eric C. De Sena, NJ, USA, Gorgias Press, pp.3-23.
40- Greswell, E. (1854), Origines Kalendariæ Italicæ: Nundinal Calendars of Ancient Italy, Nundinal Calendar of Romulus, Calendar of Numa Pompilius, Calendar of Thedecemvirs, Irregular Roman Calendar, and Julian Correction. Tables of the Roman Calendar, from U.C. 4 of Varro B.C. 750 to U.C. 1108 A.D. 355, Vol. 3, Oxford University Press.
41- Hackl, U. & B. Jacobs & D. Weber (2010), Quellen zur Geschichte des Partherreiches. Textsammlung mit Ubersetzung und Kommentaren, Bd. 1, Göttingen.
42- Hansman, J. (1968), “The Problems of Qumis”, JRAS, 100, pp.111-139.
43- Hartmann, U. (2017), “Die Parthischen Stationen des Isidor von Charax: eine Handelsroute, eine Militärkarte ode rein Werk geographischer Gelehrsamkeit?”, Parthika, Greek and Roman Authors’ Views of the Arsacid Empire, Griechisch-Römische Bilder des Arsakidenreiches (Classica et Orientalia 15), hrsg. V. Josef Wiesehöfer u. Sabine Müller, Wiesbaden, pp.87-125.
44- Hartmann, U. (2018), “Wege durch Parthien – Strassen, Handelsrouten und Kommunikation im Arsakidenreich”, in Infrastructure and distribution in ancient economies, B. Woytek (ed), Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp.445-472.
45- Haussig, H. W. (1980), “Die ältesten Nachrichten der griechischen und lateinischen Quellen über die Routen der Seidenstrasse nach Zentral- und Ostasien,” AAASH 28, pp. 9-24.
46- Herodian (2020), Complete Works of Herodian, translated by E. C. Echols, East Sussex: Delphi Classics.
47- Hirth, F. (1885), China and the Roman Orient: Researches into Their Ancient and Medieval Relations as represented in Old Chinese Records, Leipsic & Munich, Georg Hirth.
48- …….…, (1899), “Syrisch-chinesische Beziehungen im Anfang unserer Zeitrechnung,” in Durch Kleinasien und Syrien, Roman Oberhummer & Heinrich Zimmerer (eds.) Berlin: Reimer, pp.436-449.
49- Holmes, T. R. (1923), The Roman Republic and the Founder of the Empire, Vol.1, Russell & Russell.
50- Hulsewé, A. F. P. (1979), China in Central Asia, the Early Asia, the Early Stage: 125 B.C. – A.D. 23. An Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty, with an Introduction by M. A. N. Loewy, Leiden.
51- Hunter, L. W. (1913), “Cicero’s Journey to His Province of Cilicia in 51 B.C.”, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol.3, Part 1, pp.73-97.
52- Hyland, J. O. (2019), “The Achaemenid Messenger Service and the Ionian Revolt”, Historia 68, pp.150-169.
53- Hymes, R. (2000), “China: Political History”, in Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, John Stewart Bowman (ed.), Columbia University Press, pp.3-117.
54- Isidore of Charax, (1914), Parthian Stations, translated by Wilfred H. Schoff, Philadelphia: Commercial Museum.
55- Jenkins, R. M. (2004), “The Star of Bethlehem and the Comet of AD 66”, Journal of the British Astronomy Association 114, pp.336-343.
56- Khlopin, I. (1977), “Die Reiseroute Isidors von Charax und die Oberen Satrapien Parthiens”, Iranica Antiqua 12, pp.117-165.
57- van Kooten, G. (2015), “Mattew, the Parthians, and the Magi: A Contexualization of Matthew’s Gospel in Roman-Parthian Relations of the First Centuries bce and ce”, in The Star of Bethlehem and the Magi: Intedisciplinary Perspectives from Experts on the Ancient Near East, the Greco-Roman World, and Modern Astronomy, G. H. van Kooten & P. Barthel (eds), Brill: pp.496-646.
58- Kreitzer, L. J. (1996), Striking New Images: Roman Imperial Coinage and the New Testament World, Sheffield Academic Pres.
59- Laurence, R. (2002), The Roads of Roman Italy: Mobility and Cultural Change, Routledge.
60- Lepper, F. A. (1948), Trajan’s Parthian War, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
61- Lewin, T. (1865), Fasti Sacri: Or a Key to the Chronology of the New Testament, Logmans: Green & Company.
62- Lightfoot, C. S. (1990), “Trajan’s Parthian War and the Fourth-Century Perspective”, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 80, pp.115-126.
63- Llewellyn-Jones, L. & J. Robson (2010), Ctesias’ History of Persia: Tales of the Orient, London & NewYork: Routledge.
64- Llewelyn, S. R. (1994), New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
65- Longden, R. P. (1931), “Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan”, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol.21, pp.1-35.
66- Lukonin V. G. (1983), “Political, Social and Administrative Institutions, Taxes and Trade”, In Yarshater 1983, Bd. 3.2, The Cambridge History of Iran, pp. 738-746.
67- Luther, A. (1997), “Zwei Bemerkungen zu Isidor von Charax”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 119, pp.237-242.
68- Luther, A. (2010), “Zum Orientfeldzug des Gaius Caesar”, Gymnasium 117, pp.103-127.
69- Magie, D. (2017), Roman Rule in Asia Minor, Vol.2 (Notes): To the End of the Third Century After Christ, Princeton University Press.
70- Malitz, J. (2008), Nero, John Wiley & Sons.
71- Masson, M. E. (1955), “Narody I oblasti jushnoi časti Turkmenistana v sostave Parfjanskogo gosudarstva,” in Trudy JuTAKE, Bd. V., Aschchabad, pp.7-103.
72- McDowell, R. H. (1935), Coins from Seleucia on the Tigris, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
73- Millar, F. (1998), “Caravan Cities: the Roman Near East and Long-Distance Trade by Land”, in Modus Operandi. Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Rickman, M. M. Austin & J. Harries & C. J. Smith (Hrsg.), London: pp.119-137.
74- Murphy, G. J. (1945), The Reign of the Emperor L. Septimius Severus from the Evidence of the Inscriptions, St. Peters College Press.
75- Nikonorov, V. (2010), “On the Contribution of the Central Asian Nomads to the Warfare of the Antique Civilization (by the Example of Iran)” (in Russian), in The Role of Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in the Development of World Military Art, Almaty, LEM, pp.43-65.
76- Olbrycht, M. J. (2003), “Parthia and Nomads of Central Asia. Elements of Steppe Origin in Social and Military Developments of Arsacid Iran”, In Mitteilungen des SFB “Differenz und Integration” 5: Militär und Staatlichkeit, I. Schneider (ed.), Halle/Saale, pp.69-109.
77- Philostratus (1912), The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Vol.1, translated by F. C. Conybeare, London: William Heinemann.
78- Photius (1994), Photius: The Bibliotheca (Selected Works), edited by N. G. Wilson, Bristol Classical Press.
79- Pliny (1855), The Natural History, translated by John Bostock, London: Taylor and Francis.
80- ……. (1961), Natural History, translated by H. Rackham, Vol.II, Cambridge: Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.
81- Plutarch (1916a), Plutarch’s Lives III: Pericles and Fabius Maximus, Nicias and Crassus, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, London: William Heinemann.
82- ……………. (1916b), Plutarch’s Lives IX: Demetrius and Antony, Pyrrhus and Caius Marius, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, London: William Heinemann LTD.
83- …………….. (1926), Lives, Artaxerxes, Galba, Otho, General Index, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, Cambridge, MA, Vol. XI, Harvard University Press.
84- ……………... (1967), Plutarch’s Lives VII: Demosthenes and Cicero, Alexander and Caesar, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, London: William Heinemann LTD.
85- Posch, W. (1998), “Chinesische Quellen zu den Parthern”, in Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse: Beiträge des internationalen Colloquiums, Eutin (27.-30. Juni 1996), Josef Wiesehöfer (ed), Stuttgart: Steiner, pp.355-364.
86- Prokopios (2014), The Wars of Justinian, translated by H. B. Dewing, Hackett Publishing.
87- Ptolemy (1991), The Geography, translated by Edwar Luther Stevenson, NewYork: Dover.
88- Rawlinson, G. (1873), The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, London: Longmans, Green, and Co.
89- Rennell, J. (2014), Treatise on the Comparative Geography of Western Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
90- Riepl, W. (1913), Das Nachrichtenwesen des Altertums, Leipzig: Teubner.
91- Rostovtzeff, M. (1936), “The Sarmatae and Parthians”, CAH XI, pp.91-130.
92- Schippmann, K. (1980), Grundzüge der Parthische Geschichte, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
93- Shayegan, M. R. (2011), Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia, Cambridge University Press.
94- Silverstein, A. J. (2007), Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
95- Stein, E. (1932), “Tarcondimotus”, Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Band IVA, Halbband 8, Symposion-Tauris, pp.2297-2298.
96- Strabo (1917), The Geography of Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones, vol. VII, London: William Heineman.
97- ……..… (1961), The Geography of Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones, vol.v, London: William Heinemann.
98- Tacitus (2004), The Annals, translated by A. J. Woodman, Indianapolis: Hackett.
99- Tao, W. (2007), “Parthia in China: a Re-examination of the Historical Records”, in The Age of the Parthians, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis & Sarah Stewart (eds), London: Tauris, pp.87-104.
100- Towend, G. B. (1980), “Tacitus, Suetonius and the Temple of Janus”, Hermes, 108, Bd, H. 2, pp.233-242.
101- Walbank, F. W. (1967), A Historical Commentary on Polybios II, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
102- Walser, G. (1985), “Die Route des Isidorus von Charax durch Iran”, Archäologische Mit-teilungen aus Iran 18, pp.145-156.
103- Watson, Rev. J. S. (1853), Justin, Cornelius Nepos, and Eutropius: Literally Translated, with Notes and a General Index, London: Henry G. Bohn.
104- White, D. A. (1989), Myth and Metaphysics in Plato’s Phaedo, Susquehanna University Press.
105- Xenophon (1922), Xenophon in Seven Volumes, 3, ed. Carleton L. Brownson, Harvard University Press.