تمدن جیرفت (براساس متون میخی بین‌النهرینی و کشفیات باستان‌شناختی در محوطه‌های باستانی ورامین و کنارصندل جیرفت)

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران، مرکز همکاری‌های علمی بین‌المللی وزارت علوم تحقیقات و فنّاوری و دانشگاه جیرفت

2 دانشیار دانشگاه پادوا ایتالیا

3 دانش‌آموخته دکترای تخصصی گروه تاریخ دانشگاه تهران

4 دکترای تخصصی دانشگاه لیون فرانسه

5 استادیار، گروه باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه جیرفت

6 دکترای تخصصی، محقق دانشگاه لیون فرانسه

7 استادیار، گروه باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز

8 دانشجوی دکترای گروه باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

9 استادیار، گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه جیرفت

چکیده

تمدن تازه کشف شدۀ جیرفت واقع در حوزه فرهنگی هلیل‌رود، نشان از جایگاه ارزشمند تاریخی این بخش از فلات ایران در دوران آغاز تاریخی دارد. گل­نوشته ­های به زبان میخیِ به دست آمده از جنوب بین‌النهرین (عراق امروزی)، از مکان­های متعددی مربوط به هزاره سوم و دوم پیش از میلاد نام می­برند که برخی از آنها در ایران جایابی شده ­اند. جای ­نام[1] «مارهاشی» یک از این مکان­ هاست که هنوز بر سر محل امروزی آن نظرات فراوانی ارائه شده است. امروزه بیشتر پژوهشگران بر این باورند که جای­نام مارهاشی در حوزۀ تمدنی هلیل‌رود قرار داشته است. براساس گاه‌نگاری متون سومری، در زمان پادشاهان اکد و سلسلۀ سوم اور (سومر جدید) ارتباط تنگاتنگی میان این منطقه از ایران و جنوب بین‌النهرین وجود داشته است. در این مقاله به بررسی روابط تمدن جیرفت و بین‌النهرین پرداخته شده و ضمن بررسی محل جای­نام مارهاشی و تطبیق آن با تمدن جیرفت، براساس پژوهش­های جدید باستان‌شناسیِ صورت‌گرفته در جیرفت (محوطه ­های باستانی کنارصندل و ورامین)، به ریشه و وضعیت فرهنگی جنوب کرمان پیش از زمان ظهور نام مارهاشی در متون بین‌النهرینی نیز پرداخته ­شده است. این پژوهش نشان داد که پیش از ظهور نام مارهاشی در متون بین‌النهرین در قرن 23 پیش از میلاد، به مدت دست‌کم یک هزاره ارتباط تنگاتنگی میان دو منطقۀ جنوب کرمان و جنوب بین‌النهرین وجود داشته است که در متون بین‌النهرین بدان اشاره نشده و تنها مدارک باستان‌شناسی گواه این مدعاست.



[1]. Toponym         

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Jiroft Civilization: Based on the Cuneiform Texts and Archaeological Evidences from Varamin and Konar Sandal

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasir Eskandari 1
  • Massimo Vidale 2
  • Ali akbar Mesgar 3
  • Mojgan Shafiee 4
  • Meysam Shahsavari 5
  • Francois Desset 6
  • Akbar Abedi 7
  • Salman Anjomroz 8
  • Ali Shahdadi 9
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology,& Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration (CISSC), Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, IR. Iran
2 Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Padova, and ISMEO, Rome
3 Graduated from the Department of History, University of Tehran
4 CNRS team Archéorient (Lyon, France; UMR 5133)
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, Jiroft University
6 CNRS team Archéorient (Lyon, France; UMR 5133)
7 Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, Tabriz University of Islamic Arts
8 PhD student in Archeology, Tarbiat Modares University
9 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Jiroft University
چکیده [English]

Recent archaeological discoveries in the Halilrud valley (Kerman province, Iran), especially at the Site of Varamin and Konar Sandal of Jiroft,  brought to light a hitherto unknown culture, the so-called “Jiroft civilization,” which generally dates back to the third millennium BC. Jiroft became famous between 2002/2003 when thousands of confiscated burial goods, especially elaborated carved chlorite vessels, from a dozen looted necropolises of Halil Rud impacted the media. Consequently, many scholars paid attention to Jiroft; some stated that Jiroft could be the “the lost civilization” between Mesopotamia and Indus valley. Some referred to it as the core of the production and probability distribution of the already known chlorite artifacts, the so-called “intercultural style.” Moreover, some pinpointed the toponym of MarhaŠi to Jiroft. In this paper, we will attempt to examine the Jiroft or Marhashi Civilization from a historical perspective based on the Mesopotamian cuneiform texts and the archaeological evidence. Importantly, our research indicated that Jiroft and Southern Mesopotamia were closely linked before the first appearance of Marhashi in the cuneiform texts (during the time of the Akkadian Sargon).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Marhashi
  • Jiroft civilization
  • Site of Varamin
  • Konar Sandal
  • Mesopotamia
- مجیدزاده، یوسف (1382)، جیرفت: کهن­ترین تمدن شرق، تهران: سازمان میراث فرهنگی.
 - Caldwell J. R. (1967), “Excavations at Tal-i Iblis”, Illinois State Museum, Preliminary Reports, No. 9, Springfield.
- Desset, F. & M.Vidale & N.A. Soleimani (2013), Mahtoutabad III (Province of Kerman, Iran): An “Uruk-related” Material Assemblage in eastern Iran, IRAN 51, pp. 17-54.
- Emami M. & M. Razani & N. Alidadi Soleimani & Y. Madjidzadeh (2017), “New insights into the characterization and provenance of chlorite objects from the Jiroft civilization in Iran”, Journal of Archaeological Science, Reports 16, pp.194–204.
- Eskandari, N. & F, Desset & L, Maritan & A, Cherubini and M, Vidale (2019), “Multi-materials Sequential Casting and a Bronze Age “royal sceptre” from the Halil Rud valley (Kerman, Iran)”, IRAN, pp.1-15.
- Eskandari N. & p. Pfälzner & N. Alidadi Soleinami, “The formation of the Early Bronze Age Jiroft Culture, Halilrud Basin, SE Iran: Excavations at Varamin Jiroft 2017”, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, (in press).
- Francfort. H & X. Tremblay (2010), “Marhashi La Civilisation de L’Oxus”, Iranica Antiqua, XLV, pp.51-221.
- Lamberg-Karlovsky. C.C. & D.T. Potts (2001), Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran 1967-1975, The Third Millennium, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Madjidzadeh, Y. (2012), “Jiroft tablets and the origin of the Linear Elamite writing system”, in: Osada T. & Witzel M. (eds.), Cultural relations between the Indus and the Iranian plateau during the third millennium BCE; Indus project, Institute for humanities and nature, June 7-8, 2008, Harvard oriental series, opera minor, vol.7, Department of Sanskrit and Indian studies, Harvard: Harvard University, pp.217-243.
- Madjidzadeh, Y. & Pittman H. (2008), “Excavations at Konar Sandal in the Region of Jiroft in the Halil Basin: First Preliminary Report (2002–2008)”, Iran 46, pp.69–103.
- Matthews R. & A. Richardson (2019), “Cultic resilience and inter-city engagement at the dawn of urban history: protohistoric Mesopotamia and the City Seals, 3200-2750 BC”, World Archaeology 50, pp.723–747.
- Mauss, M. (1966), The gift: Forms and functions of exchange in archaic societies, London: Cohen & West.
- Mutin, B. (2013), The Proto-Elamite settlement and its neighbors; Tepe Yahya period IVC, ed. C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, American School of Prehistoric Research Monograph series, Oxbow Books.
- Potts, D. T. (2002), “Total Presentation in Marhashi-Ur Relations”, Iranica Antiqua, Vol. XXXVII, pp.343-357.
- Potts, T. F. (1993), “Patterns of Trade in Third Millennium BC Mesopotamia and Iran”, World Archaeology, Vol.24, No.3, pp.379-402.
- Sigrist, M. and T. Gomi (1991), The comprehensive catalogue of published Ur III tablets, Bethesda: CDL Press.
- Stein, A. (1937), Archaeological reconnaissances In North-Western India and South-Eastern Iran, London: Macmillan.
-  Steinkeller, Piotr (1982), “The Question of Marhashi”, ZA LXXII, pp.237-265.
- Steinkeller, Piotr (2006), “New Lights on Marhashi and its Contacts with Makkan and Babylonia”, Journal of Magan Studies I, pp.1-17
 
-. Steinkeller, Piotr ( 2014), “Marhashi and Beyond: The Jiroft Civilization in a Historical Perspective”, in C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, B. Genito, and B. Cerasetti (eds), My life is like the summer rose, papers in honour of Maurizio Tosi, pp.691-707.   
- Vallat, F. (1993), Les noms geographiques des sources suso-elamites, Wiesbaden: RGTC 11.
- Vidale M. & F. Desset (2013), “Mahtoutabad (Konar Sandal south, Jiroft), preliminary evidence of occupation of a Halil Rud site in the early 4th millennium BCE”, In C. Petrie (ed.), Ancient Iran and Its neighbours: local developments and long-range interactions in the 4th millennium BC, British Institute of Persian Studies, Archaeological Monographs Series, Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp.233-251.
- Westenholz, A. (1987), Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia, 2: The Akkadian Texts, the Enlilemaba Texts, and the Onion Archive, Copenhagen: Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, 3.
 
            
List of sources with English handwriting  
 
-       Caldwell J. R. (1967), “Excavations at Tal-i Iblis”, Illinois State Museum, Preliminary Reports, No. 9, Springfield.
-      Desset, F. & M.Vidale & N.A. Soleimani (2013), Mahtoutabad III (Province of Kerman, Iran): An “Uruk-related” Material Assemblage in eastern Iran, IRAN 51, pp. 17-54.
-      Emami M. & M. Razani & N. Alidadi Soleimani & Y. Madjidzadeh (2017), “New insights into the characterization and provenance of chlorite objects from the Jiroft civilization in Iran”, Journal of Archaeological Science, Reports 16, pp.194–204.
-      Eskandari, N. & F, Desset & L, Maritan & A, Cherubini and M, Vidale (2019), “Multi-materials Sequential Casting and a Bronze Age “royal sceptre” from the Halil Rud valley (Kerman, Iran)”, IRAN, pp.1-15.
-      Eskandari N. & p. Pfälzner & N. Alidadi Soleinami, “The formation of the Early Bronze Age Jiroft Culture, Halilrud Basin, SE Iran: Excavations at Varamin Jiroft 2017”, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, (in press).
-      Francfort. H & X. Tremblay (2010), “Marhashi La Civilisation de L’Oxus”, Iranica Antiqua, XLV, pp.51-221.
-      Lamberg-Karlovsky. C.C. & D.T. Potts (2001), Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran 1967-1975, The Third Millennium, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University,.
-      Madjidzadeh, Y. (2012), “Jiroft tablets and the origin of the Linear Elamite writing system”, in: Osada T. & Witzel M. (eds.), Cultural relations between the Indus and the Iranian plateau during the third millennium BCE; Indus project, Institute for humanities and nature, June 7-8, 2008, Harvard oriental series, opera minor, vol.7, Department of Sanskrit and Indian studies, Harvard: Harvard University, pp.217-243.
-      Madjidzadeh, Y. & Pittman H. (2008), “Excavations at Konar Sandal in the Region of Jiroft in the Halil Basin: First Preliminary Report (2002–2008)”, Iran 46, pp.69–103.
-      - Maĵīdzādeh, Yūsef (1382 Š.), Ĵīroft: Kohantarīn Tamaddon-e Šarq, Tehran: Sāzmān-e Mīrāṯ-e Farhangī. [In Persian]
-      Matthews R. & A. Richardson (2019), “Cultic resilience and inter-city engagement at the dawn of urban history: protohistoric Mesopotamia and the City Seals, 3200-2750 BC”, World Archaeology 50, pp.723–747.
-      Mauss, M. (1966), The gift: Forms and functions of exchange in archaic societies, London: Cohen & West.
 
-      Mutin, B. (2013), The Proto-Elamite settlement and its neighbors; Tepe Yahya period IVC, ed. C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, American School of Prehistoric Research Monograph series, Oxbow Books.
-      Potts, D. T. (2002), “Total Presentation in Marhashi-Ur Relations”, Iranica Antiqua, Vol. XXXVII, pp.343-357.
-      Potts, T. F. (1993), “Patterns of Trade in Third Millennium BC Mesopotamia and Iran”, World Archaeology, Vol.24, No.3, pp.379-402.
-      Sigrist, M. and T. Gomi (1991), The comprehensive catalogue of published Ur III tablets, Bethesda: CDL Press.
-      Stein, A. (1937), Archaeological reconnaissances In North-Western India and South-Eastern Iran, London: Macmillan.
-      Steinkeller, Piotr (1982), “The Question of Marhashi”, ZA LXXII, pp.237-265.
-      Steinkeller, Piotr (2006), “New Lights on Marhashi and its Contacts with Makkan and Babylonia”, Journal of Magan Studies I, pp.1-17
-      Steinkeller, Piotr (2014), “Marhashi and Beyond: The Jiroft Civilization in a Historical Perspective”, in C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, B. Genito, and B. Cerasetti (eds), My life is like the summer rose, papers in honour of Maurizio Tosi, pp.691-707.   
-      Vallat, F. (1993), Les noms geographiques des sources suso-elamites, Wiesbaden: RGTC 11.
-      Vidale M. & F. Desset (2013), “Mahtoutabad (Konar Sandal south, Jiroft), preliminary evidence of occupation of a Halil Rud site in the early 4th millennium BCE”, In C. Petrie (ed.), Ancient Iran and Its neighbours: local developments and long-range interactions in the 4th millennium BC, British Institute of Persian Studies, Archaeological Monographs Series, Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp.233-251.
-      Westenholz, A. (1987), Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia, 2: The Akkadian Texts, the Enlilemaba Texts, and the Onion Archive, Copenhagen: Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, 3.