مناسبات ایران وچین در دوره ساسانی و تاثیر آن بر فرهنگ چین با استناد به منابع چینی

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ و ایران‌شناسی دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

به‌طور کلی مناسبات چین و ایران در دورۀ ساسانی را می­توان به دو دوره تقسیم کرد: از ابتدا تا حکومت یزدگرد سوم و از حکومت یزدگرد و پناهندگی بازماندگانش به دربار تانگ در چین. روابط چین و ایران پیش از حکومت یزدگرد سوم ساسانی به لحاظ تأثیر آن بر فرهنگ چین از اهمیت بسیار برخوردار است، اما تاکنون پژوهش مستقلی در این زمینه در ایران صورت نگرفته و تنها در چند مقاله به سیر کلی مناسبات ایران و چین در دورۀ ساسانی پرداخته شده است. این امر به دلیل دسترسی اندک محققان ایرانی به متون تاریخی و داده‌های باستان‌شناختی در چین است. از ­این ­رو، در مقالۀ حاضر تلاش شده است تا با روش گردآوری اطلاعات از میان داده‌های باستان‌شناختی و به‌ صورت کتابخانه‌ای از معتبرترین متون چینی مربوط به ساسانیان، به بررسی مناسبات این دو تمدن در دورۀ ساسانی و تأثیر ساسانیان بر فرهنگ چین پرداخته شود. مدعای اصلی نویسنده آن است که به دنبال روابط سیاسی- فرهنگی دربار ساسانیان با دربار سلسله‌های چینی، به میزان بسیار زیادی بن‌مایه‌های فرهنگ ایران ساسانی، به‌ویژه در زمینۀ پوشش، کالاهای لوکس و دیگر عرصه‌های هنری وارد فرهنگ چین شده و بر آن تأثیر گذاشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Iranian and Chinese Relations in the Sassanid Period and Its Impact on Chinese Culture, Based on the Chinese Sources

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamidreza Pashazanous
Assistant professor. Department of History. University of Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In general, Iranian and Chinese Relations in the Sassanid period can be divided into two periods: from the beginning to the reign of Yazdgerd III and from the Yazdgerd rule and the refuge of his descendants to the Tang court in China. Although Iranian and Chinese Relations prior to the reign of Yazdgerd III were important in terms of their impact on Chinese culture, no independent research has been conducted in Iran so far, and only a few articles have examined the overall course of Sino-Iranian relations during the period. This is due to the limited access of Iranian scholars to historical texts and archaeological data in China. Therefore, this article aims to study the relationship between these two civilizations in Sassanid era and the influence of Sassanians on Chinese culture by gathering information from archaeological data and Chinese texts. The main claim of the author is that the political-cultural relations of the Sassanid court with the Chinese dynasties have greatly transferred the Iranian cultural elements and norms into Chinese culture and made impact on it.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran
  • China
  • Sasanians
  • Relations
  • culture
منابع و مآخذ
- جان سین لیان (1386)، متون باستانی پیرامون تاریخ روابط چین و ایران: از روزگار اشکانی تا شاهرخ تیموری، ترجمۀ جانگ هونگ نین، تهران: سازمان میراث فرهنگی، پژوهشکده زبان و گویش.
- فردوسی، ابولقاسم (1386)، شاهنامه، ویراسته جلال خالقی مطلق، ج7، تهران: انتشارات دائرۀ‌المعارف بزرگ اسلامی.
 
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- Baines, John and Norman Yoffee.1998. "Order, legitimacy, and wealth in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia," in G. Feinman and J. Marcus (eds.), Archaic states (Advanced Seminar Series), Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, pp. 199-260.
- Bussagli, M. 1963. Painting of Central Asia, tr. L. Small, Geneva.
- Carter, M. L. 1995. “A Note on Metalwork from the Hellenistic East,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 9, pp. 257-66.
- Carter, M. L. 2005. “Chinese Iranian Relations xiv. The Influence of Eastern Iranian Art”. In: Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chinese-iranian-xiv
- Ecsedy, I. 1979. “Early Persian Envoys in Chinese Courts,” in J. Harmatta, ed., Studies in the Sources on the History of Pre-Islamic Central Asia, Budapest, pp. 153-62.
- Fukai, Shinji. 1968. Study of Iranian Art and Archaeology: Glassware and Metalwork, Tokyo.
- Grabar, O. 1967. “An Introduction to the Art of Sasanian Silver,” in Sasanian Silver: Late Antique and Medieval Arts of Luxury from Iran, exhibition catalogue, University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, pp. 19-84.
- Hackin, J. 1936. Studies in Chinese Art and Some Indian Influences, London.
- Harper, P. O. 1990. “An Iranian Vessel from the Tomb of Feng Hetu,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4, pp. 51-59.
- Hayashi, Ryoichi. 1975.  Shiruku Rōdo to Shōsōin, tr. Robert Ricketts as The Silk Road and the Shoso-in, New York.
- Hsiang Ta. 1957. Ch’ang-an of the T’ang dynasty and the culture of the western regions, enl. ed., Peking.
- Hsichiu, T., 1992. Dunhuang Turfan arts series: Dunhuang dancing. China: Xinjiang Publication industry.
- Joyce, Rosemary. 2000. “High Culture, Mesoamerican Civilization, and the Classic Maya Tradition,” Order, legitimacy, and wealth in ancient states, edited by. Janet Richards and Mary Van Buren, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 64-77.
- Li Zehou (1988), The Path of Beauty: A Study of Chinese Aesthetics, morning glory publishers, Beijing.
- Liu Xu. 1975. “Western Barbarians”, Old Books of the history of Tang Dynasty, Volume 198,Biographieslifes 148, Beijing.
- Linghu Defen. 1971. Zhoushu(周書/), Beijing, Zhonghua shuju,  j. 50.
- Mahler, Jane Gaston. 1959. Westerners Among the Figurines of the T'ang Dynasty of China, Rome.
- Myers, John 1992. The way of the pipa: structure and imagery in Chinese lute music. Kent State University Press.
- Ou Yangxiu, Songqi. 1975. “Western Regions”II, New Books of the history of Tang Dynasty,Volume 221(II), Biographieslifes 146(II).
- Pulleyblank , Edwin G. 1991. “Chinese-Iranian Relations, i in pre-Islamic times”. In: Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. V, Fasc. 4, pp. 424-431.
- Rawson, J. 1984.  Chinese Ornament: The Lotus and the Dragon, New York.
- Rawson, J. 1982.  The Ornament on Chinese Silver of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618–906), London.
- Rossabi, M. 1997. “The Silk Trade in China and Central Asia,” in When Silk was Gold, ed. J. C. Y. Watt and A. E. Wardwell, exhibition catalogue, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, pp. 7-19.
- Siren, Osvald. 1925. Chinese Sculpture, Vol. 2, New York.
- Sugimura, Toh. 2008. “japan xi. Collections of Persian art in japan ”. In: Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. XIV, Fasc. 6, pp. 571-574.
- Sun Li. 2004. ‘萨珊银币在 中国的分布及其功能 [Distribution of Sassanian Silver Coins and their Functions in China],’ The Chinese Journal of Archaeology, Vol.1, pp.35-54.
- Van Buren, Mary and Janet Richards. 2000. “Introduction: idiology, wealth and the comparative study of ‘civilization’,” Order, legitimacy, and wealth in ancient states, edited by. Janet Richards and Mary Van Buren, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-12.
- Watt, James C. Y and An Jiayao, Angela F. Howard, Boris I. Marshak, Su Bai, Zhao Feng. 2004. China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
- Wei Shou 魏收. 1974. Weishu , Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, j. 102.
- Wei Zheng 魏征. 1973.  Suishu , Beijing, Zhonghua shuju, j. 83.
- Wright, Arthur F. 1959. Buddhism in Chinese History, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Yao Cha, Yao Silian. 1973. Liangshu, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, j. 54, p. 812.
- Zhang Xinglang. 1977. The Collection of the Historical Materials of Communications between China and the West (《中西交通史料汇编》), Vol. III, Beijing: Zhonghua Book Co.
- Zhao Feng. 2004. “The Evolution of Textiles Along the Silk Road,” in: China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Yale University Press, New Haven and London, pp. 67-77.
- Zhou Yiliang 周一良 .1992. "Weishu 魏書", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史, vol. 3, Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe, pp. 1211-12.
 
List of sources with English handwriting
-        Ackerman, Phyllis (1964), “Royal Personages on Sasanian Silks,” in Arthur Upham Hope and Phyllis Ackerman, eds., A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present, 2nd ed., 16 vols., Tehran, XIV, pp. 3068-79.
-        Baines, John and Norman Yoffee (1998), "Order, legitimacy, and wealth in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia," in G. Feinman and J. Marcus (eds.), Archaic states (Advanced Seminar Series), Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, pp. 199-260.
-        Bussagli, M. (1963), Painting of Central Asia, tr. L. Small, Geneva.
-        Carter, M. L. (1995), “A Note on Metalwork from the Hellenistic East,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 9, pp. 257-66.
-        Carter, M. L. (2005), “Chinese Iranian Relations xiv. The Influence of Eastern Iranian Art”. In: Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chinese-iranian-xiv
-        Ecsedy, I. (1979), “Early Persian Envoys in Chinese Courts,” in J. Harmatta, ed., Studies in the Sources on the History of Pre-Islamic Central Asia, Budapest, pp. 153-62.
-        FerdawsiAbu'l Qāsim. (1386 Š.), Šāhnāma, edited by Ĵalal Ḵāleqi-Moṭlaq, 8 vo., Tehran: Entešārāt-e Dāerat ul-Ma΄āref-e Bozorg-e Eslāmi. [In Persian]
-        Fukai, Shinji. (1968), Study of Iranian Art and Archaeology: Glassware and Metalwork, Tokyo.
-        Grabar, O. (1967), “An Introduction to the Art of Sasanian Silver,” in Sasanian Silver: Late Antique and Medieval Arts of Luxury from Iran, exhibition catalogue, University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, pp. 19-84.
-        Hackin, J. (1936), Studies in Chinese Art and Some Indian Influences, London.
-        Harper, P. O. (1990), “An Iranian Vessel from the Tomb of Feng Hetu,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4, pp. 51-59.
-        Hayashi, Ryoichi. (1975),  Shiruku Rōdo to Shōsōin, tr. Robert Ricketts as The Silk Road and the Shoso-in, New York.
-        Hsiang Ta. 1957. Ch’ang-an of the T’ang dynasty and the culture of the western regions, enl. ed., Peking.
-        Hsichiu, T. (1992), Dunhuang Turfan arts series: Dunhuang dancing. China: Xinjiang Publication industry.
-        Joyce, Rosemary. (2000), “High Culture, Mesoamerican Civilization, and the Classic Maya Tradition,” Order, legitimacy, and wealth in ancient states, edited by. Janet Richards and Mary Van Buren, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 64-77.
-        Li Zehou (1988), The Path of Beauty: A Study of Chinese Aesthetics, Morning Glory publishers, Beijing.
-        Liu Xu. (1975), “Western Barbarians”, Old Books of the history of Tang Dynasty, Volume 198,Biographieslifes 148, Beijing.
-        Linghu Defen. (1971), Zhoushu (周書/), Beijing, Zhonghua shuju,  j. 50.
-        Mahler, Jane Gaston. (1959), Westerners Among the Figurines of the T'ang Dynasty of China, Rome.
-        Myers, John (1992), The way of the pipa: structure and imagery in Chinese lute music. Kent State University Press.
-        Ou Yangxiu, Songqi. (1975), “Western Regions”II, New Books of the history of Tang Dynasty, Volume 221(II), Biographieslifes 146(II).
-        Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1991), “Chinese-Iranian Relations, i in pre-Islamic times”. In: Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. V, Fasc. 4, pp. 424-431.
-        Rawson, J. (1984), Chinese Ornament: The Lotus and the Dragon, New York.
-        Rawson, J. (1982), The Ornament on Chinese Silver of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618–906), London.
-        Rossabi, M. (1997), “The Silk Trade in China and Central Asia,” in When Silk was Gold, ed. J. C. Y. Watt and A. E. Wardwell, exhibition catalogue, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, pp. 7-19.
-        Siren, Osvald. (1925), Chinese Sculpture, Vol. 2, New York.
-        Sugimura, Toh. 2008. “Japan xi. Collections of Persian art in japan”. In: Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. XIV, Fasc. 6, pp. 571-574.
-        Sun Li. (2004), ‘萨珊银币在 中国的分布及其功能 [Distribution of Sassanian Silver Coins and their Functions in China],’ The Chinese Journal of Archaeology, Vol.1, pp.35-54.
-        Van Buren, Mary and Janet Richards. (2000), “Introduction: Ideology, wealth and the comparative study of ‘civilization’,” Order, legitimacy, and wealth in ancient states, edited by. Janet Richards and Mary Van Buren, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-12.
-        Watt, James C. Y and An Jiayao, Angela F. Howard, Boris I. Marshak, Su Bai, Zhao Feng. (2004), China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
-        Wei Shou 魏收. (1974), Weishu , Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, j. 102.
-        Wei Zheng 魏征. (1973), Suishu, Beijing, Zhonghua shuju, j. 83.
-        Wright, Arthur F. (1959), Buddhism in Chinese History, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
-        Yao Cha, Yao Silian. (1973), Liangshu, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, j. 54, p. 812.
-        Zhang Xinglang. (1977), The Collection of the Historical Materials of Communications between China and the West (《中西交通史料汇编》), Vol. III, Beijing: Zhonghua Book Co.
-        Zhao Feng. (2004), “The Evolution of Textiles Along the Silk Road,” in: China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Yale University Press, New Haven and London, pp. 67-77.
-       Zhou Yiliang 周一良 (1992), "Weishu 魏書", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史, vol. 3, Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe, pp. 1211-12.